Creating A Winter Garden (Part 1)

The speckled flowers of Clematis cirrhosa ‘Freckles’ and its creamy white counterpart ‘Jingle Bells’ have begun to festoon the bare apple espaliers with some intrepid stems nearly trailing along the ground. I planted the clematis by the post closest to the dining room window so that we could see it from the table and judging by the profusion of tight buds, we should be enjoying their swaying bells throughout the next few months. I’ve just been chatting to Nick Coffer on BBC Three Counties Radio this afternoon (our chat starts at 2:38:20 on the iplayer link) about the precious beauty of winter flowers and why every garden should have at least one dogwood to shine out in the darkest days (but I would say that!)

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Clematis cirrhosa ‘Freckles’

To my mind, one of the key aspects of a successful winter garden, especially on a smaller plot, is being able to see plants from indoors. Although I love nothing more than wrapping the family up like a troupe of miniature snowmen to venture out in frost or snow to explore magnificent winter gardens like those at Anglesey Abbey, Cambridge University Botanic Garden and Hyde Hall, the average back garden doesn’t have the space for groves of silver birch or sweeping vistas of dogwoods and willows, and much winter viewing will be conducted from the warmth of the home. So it’s important to consider the overall winter structure of the garden first, to ensure that when viewed from the house there will be strong lines to create interest. Then other factors can be explored, such as adding scent and colour to the garden within the evergreen structure.

Structure

The key element of any garden is its underlying structure, created by the hard landscaping (patio, paths, etc…) and its use of evergreen plants, especially trees and shrubs. When other plants lose their foliage as winter approaches, these evergreen stalwarts take centre stage and the bare bones of the garden are revealed.

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Front garden rosemary hedge from January to March

Traditionally low hedges and topiary are used to create this structure, often in box (Buxus sempervirens), yew (Taxus baccata) or holly (Ilex). In my front garden, we’ve adapted this principle by using edible evergreens – trisecting the space with a rosemary hedge (Rosmarinus officinalis) and defining the boundary with a low Chilean guava hedge (Ugni molinae). Alongside three box balls, the hedges give the garden a strong structure in winter and their low height allows my summer flowers to quickly overtop them, softening the garden and creating a less formal atmosphere.

 

Winter bare bones followed by summer profusion

We’ve also used this idea in the side garden, where the relatively slow growing balls of Pittosporum tenuifolium ‘Tom Thumb’ create a stunning contrast to the golden gravel. These chocolate-purple shrubs with their sprinkling of light green new leaves are a good alternative to box balls if your garden suffers from box blight (a fungal disease) or box tree caterpillars (extra-voracious versions of The Very Hungry Caterpillar).

 

The evergreens going in and maturing

DSC_0071 (2)Summer brings a looser feel to the garden

If you don’t have space to add shrubs in the ground, any of these plants can be grown in containers and simply moved into position in beds and borders to act as winter focal points when the perennials die down. Using containers also has the advantage, in a small garden, of allowing winter stars to shine in their season and to be moved into a less obvious positions as the spring and summer plants get into their stride. For this reason, I have two witch hazels (Hamamelis x intermedia ‘Jelena’ and ‘Diane’) in containers behind the shed, ready to place on the patio in full view of the windows as their flowers emerge in late winter and to return to the shelter of the shed later in the year.

 

‘Diane’ and ‘Jelena’ in flower

Flowers

As I write, sitting on the window seat in the December sunshine, I can see next door’s mahonia (very likely Mahonia x media ‘Winter Sun’) with its yellow racemes of flowers reaching into the blue. I used to dislike mahonia with its tough, spiny foliage and cold lemon flowers, but recently I’ve come to admire the colour it adds to the garden on darker days and its tolerance for partial shade and a wide variety of soil types, including our heavy alkaline clay. My volte-face was complete when I learnt that the fruits are edible – their common name is ‘Oregon Grape’ and they are often used for preserves in the US due to their tart, earthy flavour and large number of seeds.

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How could I have failed to relish the sheer winter joy that is mahonia?

Hellebores are also an important element in many winter gardens with their delicate down-turned flowers encouraging a close-up study best undertaken lying recumbent in the leaf litter. I’m excited to be growing hellebores for the first time this year, especially as I bought the plants from our community garden open day, so their exact colour is currently a mystery. It’s a plant I’ve wanted to grow for many years and I’m looking forward to getting to know this understated woodland beauty better.

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Winter sun washes the hellebores in Regent’s Park

Part 2

Next time I’ll be considering scent and stems/bark as ways to extend the season of interest in the garden. In the meantime, enjoy the unexpected sight of any winter flowers (although in my garden a couple of summer annuals seem not to have realised that it’s December) and celebrate evergreen structure wherever you find it. Happy December!

If you’d like to follow my blog, I’ll be adding Creating A Winter Garden (Part 2) later in the week…

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Calendula ‘Snow Princess’ is living up to her name and resolutely refusing to admit that it’s December!

 

 

 

6 thoughts on “Creating A Winter Garden (Part 1)

  1. Caroline says:

    I’ve just started to follow your blog, and I think this is an absolutely brilliant post. The photographs are really well chosen and perfectly illustrate integrating winter and summer planting (which is so hard to visualise), while the text inspirationally combines design and plantsmanship. I’m giving a lot of thought to winter garden design at the moment and this is probably the most helpful piece I’ve come across (after Rosemary Verey’s magisterial The Garden in Winter).
    Thank you so much!

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    • dogwooddays says:

      Hi Caroline, really glad you found my blog and that the article was helpful. I have learnt so much about the importance of the bones of a garden over the past few years and it’s great to be able to share some of the winter thinking behind my own garden. I also love Rosemary Verey’s The Garden In Winter – it’s one of the books I was planning to add at the end of the third part as reading for anyone who wanted to explore the subject further. I hope you’ll enjoy the follow up posts – planned for mid week and next weekend. Best wishes and enjoy your day ☺

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  2. My Dream Garden says:

    Hello there, I like your advice about locating winter flowering plants where they can be viewed from indoors. That obvious point had escaped me until now! And those witch hazels- amazing! I don’t know if we can grow these in Australia but I will be making inquiries. Dogwoods and clematis aren’t widely grown here. I first saw dogwoods a few years ago. I’ve had a dogwood plant in my garden for a few years- no flowers yet. I agree about the preciousness of winter flowers. If you’d like to see what we have in our winter gardens in the central west of New South Wales, you could look at my post- https://mydreamgarden.com.au/2017/08/14/jewels-in-the-winter-garden/. I look forward to Part 2 of this interesting post. Jane

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    • dogwooddays says:

      Hi Jane! I hope you are able to grow witch hazels in Australia – they are beautifully delicate shrubs. The shrubby dogwoods do have flowers, but they aren’t much to write home about. The flowering dogwoods like Cornus kousa and Cornus florida are best for flowers, although their beautiful blooms are actually bracts. I enjoyed your post – I always look forward to the first Japanese quince flowering. Enjoy your summer! 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

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