A Taste Of Unusual Edibles: RHS Hampton Court Flower Show

Calycanthus (Allspice)

The first inkling I had that unusual edibles would catch my eye at Hampton Court this year was the sight of deep red Calycanthus flowers around every corner. As soon as I entered the show, there was Calycanthus ‘Aphrodite’ in Evolve: Through the Roots of Time Garden, beautifully set off by the predominantly green foliage of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods, then more specimens by the entrance to The Countryfile Garden, in The Family Garden and outside the mirrored meadow-room of Apeiron: The Dibond Garden.

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Calycanthus ‘Aphrodite’

This aromatic shrub is most often grown for its glossy foliage and single elegant flowers, but its bark was traditionally dried in indigenous American cultures and used as a substitute for cinnamon and allspice. The flowers and seeds of both Calycanthus florida (Carolina Allspice) and Calycanthus occidentalis (Californian Allspice) are poisonous and the Plants For a Future database advises caution when using the bark due to the plant’s toxic components, but James Wong includes Calycanthus floridus in his Homegrown Revolution, it has been featured in The Guardian by Lia Leendertz as producing an ‘edible spice’ and Calycanthus ‘Aphrodite’ has also been planted in this year’s RHS Grow Your Own Garden along with other shrubs with edible parts. 

Ugni molinae ‘Heritage Ice’ (Chilean Guava)

Regular readers will already know of my fondness for the Chilean guava. I have Ugni molinae ‘Ka-pow’, just one of the cultivars on display in the Plant Heritage section of the floral marquee. Dr Gary and Dr Maria Firth hold the National Collection of Myrtaceae which includes collections of myrtle, luma, Chilean guava and lophomyrtus and this year their Ugni molinae selection includes ‘Kapow’, ‘Butterball’, ‘Variegata’ and ‘Heritage Ice’. 

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Ugni molinae ‘Heritage Ice’

‘Heritage Ice’ has variegated leaves speckled with cream and Gary told me it isn’t prone to reverting, unlike ‘Variegata’. With such attractive foliage, delicate white flowers and delicious, aromatic fruit in October – a time of year when sweetness and perfume are fading away with the memories of summer – this is a shrub which deserves to be more widely grown.

Zanthoxylum (Szechuan Pepper)

After helping to plant the Foraging Forest Garden at the RHS Autumn Show last year and showing visitors around the installation, I became fascinated with the different Szechuan peppers around the garden. I bought a Zanthoxylum piperitum earlier in the year and it has been an unmitigated failure so far. When I planted it out in the garden I noticed the developing leaves kept disappearing overnight, leaving me week after week with an unprepossessing stick poking out of the earth. Deciding that slugs were the culprits, I moved it back into a pot away from the molluscs, but it is still sulking and refusing to produce leaves (although it is still alive – just!) 

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Can you see any leaves? No neither can I…

When I saw the Zanthoxylum piperitum in the RHS Grow Your Own Garden I felt a certain amount of pepperish envy. Beryl Randall, who writes the gardening blog Mud and Gluts, was helping to plant the garden and she brought along her own Szechuan pepper to add to the edible display – doesn’t it look healthy? 

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Beryl’s Szechuan Pepper

To find out what I’m doing wrong I spent a while chatting to Fiona Blackmore and Chris Smith at Pennard Plants about their growing collection of Zanthoxylum. They have 11 species so far including winged prickly ash (Zanthoxylum planispinum) – a very spiny Nepalese form which is is one of the ingredients in Chinese ‘Five Spice’, lemon-flavoured Zanthoxylum simulans and my favourite, the Japanese pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum ‘Purple Leaved’), which forms one of the main ingredients in the Japanese blended spice shichimi. As well as collecting the berries of these peppers as a spice, the leaves can also be used in salads and as a flavouring. 

The general feeling was that my problem had been slugs and the plant now needs some TLC (better growing medium/seaweed fertiliser) to help it recover and come into leaf. If this doesn’t work though, I’ll not be too sad. It will be a good excuse to buy a couple more peppers from Pennards and this time I’ll follow Beryl’s example and keep them in pots.

Broussonetia papyrifera (Paper Mulberry)

This Asian shrub in the mulberry family was a new one for me when I came across it in the RHS Grow Your Own Garden. Its primary traditional use was for making paper in China and handcrafted washi paper in Japan, and it has edible fruits and leaves (when cooked). It is classed as an invasive species in some countries like Uganda, Pakistan and Argentina, and has allergenic pollen.

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The unusual shaped immature foliage of the paper mulberry

The fruits, which develop if the flowers are fertilised, have a similar look to the mulberry with a cluster of drupes creating a spherical pom-pom which ripens to orange or red. They are apparently best eaten fresh and have a sweet taste. The paper mulberry can be grown in most areas of the UK, but it’s classified as H5 by the RHS (hardy down to -10/-15) so might suffer in cold winters. It also has a suckering habit – one of the factors which can make it invasive in warmer countries. I’m not sure I’d grow it exclusively for the fruits as I imagine the crop would be fairly small, but the dramatic foliage creates impact and in areas that don’t have repeated hot summers the plant remains shrubby, perfect for the back of a sunny border.

If you’d like to read more articles on RHS Hampton Court Flower Show over the week, you can follow the blog below:

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Dogwooddays does not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Not everyone reacts positively to all edible plants or other plant uses. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

12 Practical Ways To Create A Modern Kitchen Garden

The RHS Kitchen Garden

What a great sign that the flagship garden at RHS Hampton Court this year is a kitchen garden. I’m excited by edible gardens of all shapes and sizes and like nothing better than to spend an afternoon pottering round an extensive walled kitchen garden in the sunshine, reading the labels and dreaming about having my own walled garden and team of gardeners to maintain it. However I, like most people, have a much more modest garden which also has to accommodate a shed, bins, BBQ, children’s toys and a washing line. And what if your garden is a small patio or even just a windowsill? What if you have no area upon which the sun smiles for six hours of the day? Will kitchen gardening remain a beautiful dream?

In the RHS Kitchen Garden, Juliet Sargeant explores different ways to grow fresh food in small spaces and in cost-efficient ways. This is a garden bursting with ideas, designed to inspire with simple labels throughout explaining the thinking behind the planting. Whether it’s reusing an old fish tank, building a simple compost bin or munching on your shrubs, there are ideas here for everyone to take home…

1. Plant a Living Wall

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This is the edible cooking bench which is the setting of The Hairy Bikers’ Kitchen Garden Live on BBC1 each morning this week

Vertical space is used in different ways in the garden. I loved this edible bench with its mix of viola, sage, curry plant, parsley and oregano. In reality, few of us are likely to have an entire outside bench covered in edibles. More achievable are the inexpensive hanging pockets which can be attached to the wall and filled with edible plants. I liked the way a variety of greens are used here with the silvery curry plant (Helicrysum italicum), dark sage and bright green parsley. The white and blue violas add a sprinkle of colour and their petals can also be used in ice cubes, on salads or crystallised in cakes.

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A simple wall storage unit filled with strawberry pots

This storage unit looks great and something similar (possibly smaller) should be fairly easy to buy or construct and then treat with weatherproof paint, although a piece constructed specifically for outdoor use would no doubt have a longer life. In fact, I’m tempted to throw the children’s toys out of our similar unit and relocate it on the patio as a way of gaining more planting space in the garden!

DSC_0156This runner bean wall is another way to capitalise on the vertical space against a sunny wall. With wires between the top and bottom frames, the beans can very quickly cover the wall and could be planted in pots or the ground. A simple cane structure could also be used, although this metal frame would be strong and durable, and could be removed in the winter months. For added variety, the beans could be interspersed with morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), black-eyed Susan (Thunbergia alata) or sweet peas to add (non-edible) annual colour to the display. This method of growing could also be used with peas or even courgettes, cucumbers and squashes, which love to climb and welcome the extra sunshine accessible in an elevated position. In this way, crops can be grown which otherwise might struggle for space in a small garden.

 2. Grow Meals in Pots

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Container edibles are so accessible for small gardens and community spaces, with the only drawback that they require more watering than crops in the ground. I love growing herbs for teas – lemon verbena, a range of mint, lemon/lime balm (which can cope with some shade), scented-leaved pelargoniums and bergamot. These meal pots are fun for children to grow and provide a delicious small space solution to growing edibles. It could be taken even further with a small tray of pots growing chillies, lemon grass, mint, chives, salad leaves or basil, for simple summer meals and hot drinks or iced infusions.

3. Make a Simple Brick Compost Bin

This compost bin is stylish and easy – designed to grow over time

If there’s no room for a traditional compost bin or the idea of a plastic bin is unpalatable, Juliet offers an alternative in this brick circular compost bin. If you have spare bricks lying around or can get some through a recycling site like Freecycle, this could be a cost effective way to start composting. Best of all, its temporary nature means it can be relocated easily once the compost is ready to use.

4. Colour Your Veggies

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I’ve always been fascinated by colour in edible planting. This kitchen garden uses both colourful vegetables like the blue cabbages, chocolate millet, rainbow chard, purple kale, kohl rabi and pak choi interplanted with vibrant flowers  – edible calendula flowers and dahlias (whose roots are the edible part – although not all varieties are said to taste good). In particular I loved the combination of dark Redbor kale with Dahlia ‘Bishop of Leicester’ with its deep purple foliage and soft pink blooms – no flowerbed could be more beautiful to my eyes.

5. Use Aquaponics

The aquaponics crops looked delicious

I knew very little about aquaponics, so it was interesting to talk to Emerald from Aquaponic Life, a Community Interest Nonprofit Company, who had set up this section of the garden. She told me that aquaponics are a viable option for small gardens or even indoor fishtanks. The closed-loop system involves using the nitrogenous waste excreted by the fish to provide nutrients for the plants which are grown hydroponically (in water without using soil). The plants, in turn, filter the water, which is returned clean for the fish. This continuous cycle uses 90-98% less water than conventional methods. Aquaponic Life run courses in their home town of Brighton to train people about how these systems can be used in homes and gardens. The company is currently crowdfunding to develop their home aquaponics system so that more people can use this sustainable method of food production. They also hope to develop their work in school and universities, and create an urban farm in or near the centre of Brighton as a teaching resource to help put food security back into the hands of families and communities. I will be watching and supporting their progress with interest and if we acquiesce on the pet front with the children next year, maybe Tilapia will be our pet of choice.

6. Munch on Petals

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If you’re going to interplant flowers and vegetables/fruit in a kitchen garden bed, why not use edible flowers to extend the range of crops? Alternatively, your existing garden flowers can provide decorations and salad ingredients throughout the year. In the RHS Kitchen Garden, Juliet has included a colourful flowerbed to attractive pollinators, with the added advantage of using edible flowers. Dianthus, agastache, lavender, calendula, hollyhocks, and campanula are amongst the edible flowers in the garden. We also grow borage and nasturtiums in the vegetable beds to bring in the insects and provide edible flowers for the kitchen.

7. Use Straw Bales

This is an idea I’d like to try out on my allotment next year

This is a new one on me, although I have heard of straw bales being used at the allotment to create hotbeds. Juliet has planted strawberries and melons in compost within the straw bales. I particularly liked the melon ‘Ogen’ which is grafted onto courgette root stock so that it can tolerate the UK climate better. Seeds can even be sown onto bales if a 5cm layer of compost is added first and with the extra heat created, crops like melons are more likely to be successful on straw than in the ground. The only concern I’d have about using straw bales is the possibility of herbicides or in the straw. One solution would be to use organic straw or to investigate the provenance of your material before you use it.

8. Eat your trees and shrubs

With well over 2,500 edible plants across the world, the UK relies on perhaps twenty main crops, ignoring thousands of others which would grow in our climate. Trees and shrubs are a good example, with many common indigenous and non-native species offering food which we choose not to use. Elderflowers and berries, young lime (Tillia cordata), silver birch (Betula pendula) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) leaves, mahonia berries, fuchsia berries and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) berries (cooked in jams) are all examples used in the garden, although if you have found a fuchsia berry which tastes delicious on cereals without the astringent aftertaste which I so dislike, please do let me know.

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9. Try more unusual plants

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Daylilies create drama in the garden and provide food

I love trying out new edibles – both to see how they grow and to experiment in the kitchen. Some of my new acquisitions this year include hardy ginger (Zingiber mioga with edible young shoots and flowerbuds) and Caucasian spinach (Hablizia tamnoides with spinach-like leaves). Juliet has included bamboo, hostas, daylilies and ferns in her garden with useful tips on growing and cooking with them on the labels.

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If you already have bamboo in the garden, this snack should be easy to come by

10. Use herbs as ground cover

Make thyme for herbs

Herbs have so many different uses in the garden – I use them as hedges, in my green roof and for scented ground cover. In this garden both thyme and rosemary are used to cover the ground beneath the trees. As well as looking good, they bring in pollinating insects and provide leaves for stews, soups and marinades. My favourite ground cover herb is creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum). It’s pretty indestructible, drought tolerant and softens the hard edges of the stepping stones with their delicate leaves.

11. Grow dwarf fruit varieties

If it’s too big don’t despair – just choose a dwarf variety

Kitchen gardens have been using dwarf varieties for centuries, but their are still new crops being developed to increase the range of plants available to the small scale gardener. Mulberry Charlotte Russe is the latest example, offering a dwarf shrub (growing to about 1.5m) where other Mulberries would be well beyond the scope of most small gardens. It won the 2017 RHS Chelsea Plant of the Year award and is capable of fruiting in its first year. I have heard reports that the fruit taste is disappointing, but can’t comment as mine was devoured by the slugs in its first few weeks. It is now recovering in the greenhouse, but I’ll need to wait until next year to join the taste testing.

12. Celebrate the shade

Most traditional vegetable benefit from at least six hours of sunshine during the growing season. However, there are exceptions and some more unusual crops which will cope with shady areas. Hostas and ferns are good examples, alongside the more conventional salad greens, Swiss chard, beetroot, kale and pak choi. If the shady area is under an established tree, try creating a raised bed to give added soil depth or planting in seasonal containers.

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Do you have any other top tips for creating a practical, modern kitchen garden? Have you found any of these ideas successful? If so, I’d love to hear from you. Please leave me a comment and happy edible gardening.

If you’d like to read more about edible and sustainable planting at Hampton Court, check out my post on London Glades: Forest Garden Solutions For Urban Spaces at RHS Hampton Court Flower Show and follow my blog as I experiment with all manner of fruit, vegetables and herbs…

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Dogwooddays does not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Not everyone reacts positively to all edible plants or other plant uses. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.